MARA CHITHÂTIH PAHNO THEINA KAOZY (SOURCES OF MARA HISTORY)

Laiu Fachhai

BIEHMIA

Chithâtih (history) rona dâh he athaipazy ta historiography (the art of writing history) tah ei ta, cha yzie cha hehawhta a châ: Zakha liata zakha adopa chithâtih (100 percent factual history) y thei vei. Achhâpa cha chithâtih zydua he daihti nata thâtih a khô ha chiehpa kha a hnôhlâ pita ropa a châ tyh vata. Chavata chithâtih ro ti heta rohtuhpazy ta ama tao chaipa cha phôhpazy (stories, legends, myths), hlazy (songs), lâzy (dances), bieso nata machâ biezy (proverbs and wise sayings), hmo tluatlâhpa a ypazy (significant events) zy nata ropa ta chithâtih a y chiehpazy (written history) chhopasiana (interpretation), chhopasia heihna (re-interpretation) nata chhopasia via heihna (re-re-interpretation) tlâ a châ, ama tah. Mara chithâtih ro tita chhao hehe eima ro dâh nawpa cha châ hra ta, rohtuhpa hluhpi ta he tlai he ama tao hrapa ta â lâ.

Marâhpasawzy pi he phopi rôhnahpa pa nata pho hlôpa eima vaw châ tlai na tahpa cha chhâ zydua ta eima vaw hnei lymapa nata vaw hmâ lymapa eima reih (language), eima phoryhpa (culture), eima zyna (religion; in this case, Mara Traditional Religion), eima chithâtih (history), nata eima râh eihpa hneipa (land) zy heta a sia ngaitapa ta a palâsa. Reih, phoryhpa, zyna, chithâtih nata râh zy he a zao khai ha ei ta, chavata hezy he sâkha sâkha ta eima pahlei laih lymâ khiata cha eima Marapa châna chhao eima pahlei laih lymâ aw, tahna a châ. He châbie (article) ta â nuapa deikua he Mara Chithâtih (Mara History) lâ chhâh châ via chai ta; cha eima chithâtih hmô thei awpa nata pahno thei awpa ta a yna kao (sources) zy eima lapakhy aw.

Marâ chithâtih he ahlôpi ta kao palih tawhta hmô theipa châ ta; chazy cha a sâkhana ta achhopachhuah laihpa bie nata hlazy (oral tradition) tawhta châ ta, a sânona ta ropa biezy (written documents) tawhta châ heih ta, a sâthôhna ta Marapa chhaichhi hmobyuh (Mara artifacts) tawhta Mara chithâtih a pahno thei hra ta, a sâpalihna ta hlâno ta khihsa tôhtu dâh thaopapuana (archeology) tawhta hmô theipa nata pahno theipa a châ hra.

A. ACHHOPACHHUAH LAIHPA BIE NATA HLAZY (Oral Tradition)

He ary liata palâsapa, achhopachhuah laihpa phôhpa nata bie nata hla zy tawhta Mara chithâtih hluhpi â pahno thei.

1. Hlazy (poetic songs or classical Mara songs) (Awhkhypa Hla, Nawh Hla, etc)
2. Chaphôhtunazy (lamentations)
3. Phôhpazy (stories, legends and myths)
4. Biesozy nata machâ biezy (proverbs and wise sayings)
5. Thaokeina (thaotôna) thâtihzy (genealogies), a eihpachaipa ta ryureihtuhpa beizy thaokeina nata amâ beina râh thâtihzy
6. Hmo tluatlâhpa thâtihzy (significant events) – adyuhna, tilaipa, etc zy
7. Khih nata râh, chavah-chahaoh, tlâh nata by, thokô-râhkô, etc mohchhozy nata ama yziezy.

Atanoh ropa ta eima hneipa Mara chithâtihzy he ahmiatua ta cha achhohpachhuah laihpa bie nata hlazy tawhta lapa ama châ hra. Khito liata he achô liata palâsapa thâtihzy lâchhâh ta a pahâh kawpa nata a pahno kawpazy y chyu ei ta, chazy cha a pakyh ta châ athaipazy ta a ropa cheingei ta tlyma, ao record ta tlyma so awpa daihti a tlô haw. Chataleipata cha chhâ thiehpa a vaw tlô awpa liata chahawhta a pahnopa y khao leipa aw ei ta, Mara chithâtih pahno theina kao nata hnawh sôh ngaitapazy eima pahlei ha aw. Hehawhta achhopachhuah laihpa biezy nata hlazy he ropa ta so thei awpa ta, MADC ta hmah la via lyma sa la, sôh lâchhâh chhao budget pha kawpa tao thei sa la a pha aw.

B. ROPA BIE NATA HLAZY (Written Documents)

Mara chithâtih rona bie nata hlazy he châbu nata article-zy liata hmô via chai pi ta, chaleipa chhaota sawhkhâ nata py record buzy, archive-zy, muséum-zy, artéfact-zy nata archeology zy tawh chhaota pahno theipa ama châ hra.

1. Châbu nata châbie (article-zy)

Mara chithâtih he athaipazy ta ama ropa hmô awpa a hluh kaw bâ. Khizaw liata maluh chyh kawpa chipho hry liata ama chithâtih ropa ta a hnei hluh chaipa chi kha eima châ hra thlyu aw. He Mara chithâtih rona châbu, châbie nata hlazy he eima paso thai awpa â ngiah ngaita kaw. Thokha cha ama ro dâh a do tu leipa tlyma, hiakha lâ saita a hei tupa tlyma, bie ropa rei tlâh a châ tu leipa tlyma ama y thei aw. A kheihhawhpa rai a châpa chhaota, eima chithâtih ropa ta a yna châbu, châbie nata hla zy ama châ va hrahro ta paso kaw sai si la, a byuh khiata cha “reipapha padona” (constructive correction) deikua hnei lymâ si la, hmahsie viana maniah a tlôkhei aw.

Châbu tlyma châbie tlyma ro tita, a reih awpa (audience) zy pachâpa ta popular reading (chyhsa ahyrai ta rei thei awpa) nata academic reading (châ athaipazy rei via awpa) tahpa ta pachhaihpa châ ta. Academic reading châta ropazy he cha university research methodology hmâpa ta ropa châ ta, popular reading deikua he cha phôhpa hawh rô ta, zawpi-vatlâhzy rei thei awpa ta ropazy ama châ. He ro dâh sâno penawh ananona he ado viana nata ado lei viana tahpa kao ta châ hlei vei. Ro dâh (approach or methodology) kyh tlao â nua via chai. A sâno lâh heta source tlohpa nata sôh kawpa ama châ khai. Atanoh ta Mara reih ta eima hneipa Mara chithâtihzy he Mara reih ta research tao theina university zy a y mâh leipa vata, academic reading châta ropa hlu tu mâh vei; popular reading châta ropazy ama châ via chai. (Mara reih, Maw reih nata Mongyuh reih ta ropa, Mara chithâtih châbuzy, recordzy nata artifact-zy hmô thei awpata a ynazy cha achhâna lâta appendix liata palâsapa ama châ.).

2. Record nata Archive-zy

Mara chithâtih thokha cha record parohpazy nata hmoparohpa pasona (archive) zy tawhta hmô theipa châ hrata, he ary liata palâsapa suzy nata su hropazy liata chhao tlua lyma thei awpa a châ.

a. Assam Secretariate Record, Dispur:

• Secretariate Proceedings Political – A 1906-1924.
• Annual Report on Administration of Lushai Hills 1902-1920.
• Annual Report on the Natives and Frontier Tribes of Assam 1898-1920.
• Orders, Notifications, etc. issued/received from miscellaneous quarters 1930-1938.

b. Lakher Pioneer Mission Record, Saikao: A eihpachaipa ta 1910, 1930, 1934, 1935, 1944, 1946, 1949, 1957, 1962, 1964 kôzy liata papuapa newsletters tawhta Mara chithâtih khazie rakha ma hmô theipa a châ.

c. Mara Autonomous District Council Records, Siaha: A eihpachaipa ta Census Records, Notifications and Letters, Memorandums zy liata Mara chithâtih kao nano kao nanopa ta palâsapa ama châ…

d. National Museum and Archives. New Delhi, Guwahati, Shillong, Kolkata nata Aizawl museum-zy tawhta khazie rakhama Mara chithâtih hmô thei awpa châ ta, Rangoon liata National Museum and Archive tawh chhaota hmô theipa a châ hra aw.

e. Census of India and Myanmar Series: He he Mara chithâtih hmô theina hnawh (source) peimawh kawpa a châ..

f. Magazines, Souvenirs and edited works by associations and churches in Maraland: Hezy tawhna heta ara chithâtih kao nano kao nanopa ta ropa hmô theipa a châ.

g. Manuscripts: Chhuh papua leipa châbu nata châbie thokhazy tawhta Mara chithâtih sôh kawpa, eima pahno ngai leipazy chhao pahno theipa ama châ hra..

C. ARTIFACTS

Marapa ta eima vaw hneipa nata vaw hmâ tyhpa hmobyuhzy tawhta Mara chithâtih hluhpi pahno theipa a châ hra. Chavata he Mara artifacts zydua he MADC ta â ki kawpa ta archive liata a so ha awpa a peimawh ngaita kaw. Appendix liata London khihpi liata British Museum nata Archive hnohta eima missionaryzy ta ama vaw piepa Mara artifacts zy palâsapa châ ei ta, thokha deikua he written documents ry liata a hlao hra awpa châ taraw ei ta, ama yna su â lyupa vata hmaokhaota eima vaw palâsa.

D. ARCHEOLOGY

Atanoh khizaw thaina a vaw sâh laih ta, archeology thaina tawhta hlâno ta chithâtih hluhpi pahno theipa a châ ha ba. Archeology raihria he, hlâno ta khih rypazy, thlâ rypazy nata su peimawhpazy chao ta hlâno ta hmobyuh (artifacts), reih nata hmo hropazy thaopapua ta achuna rai a châ. Thaopapuapa ama châ khai tawhta athaipazy ta thata a chu ei ta, a hmâna, a tao dâh nata kô zy amâ laichadai. Maraland liana chhao heta khih rypa nata thlâ rypazy chao papua awpa ama hluh kaw. Hezy tawhtna heta eima chithâtih khazie rakhama â pahno thei aw. Archeology raihria he eima râh liata a thao mâh leipa châ ta, hehe a pathaona dâh pachâ ti â daih habapa ta â lâ.

E. BIEKHAW

Mara chithâtih he chi hropazy ta ama ropa hlâta keimo Marapasaw cheingei ta eima ropazy he â do chai aw. Chavata Marapasaw historianzy cheingei ta research thata tao ei sala, eima chi thâtih he â kichai kawpata maniah ropa thei haba ei sala tahpa he moto aoh khopa a châ ha ba. Hehawhta chithâtih research tao ta ro tita deikua, Nochhi Mararâh (East Maraland) nata Notla Mararâh (West Maraland) zy hmona dâh (finding) zy paryh-patlâh (synchronize) lyma awpa a peimawh kaw aw. Chataleipata cha a lyu leipa eima chithâtih sâno sâthôh pua thei aw ta, eima reih hmâ dâh chhao a vaw nano lai lyma aw ta, eimâ hla via laih lyma aw. Khizaw liata Marapa a y chhôhpa he keimo nochhi (Burma) nata notla (India) liata a ypa Marapasawzy he tlâ châ bâ pi ta, chavata keimo nata keimo ta eimâ pasô leipa nata cheihchalo lei khiata cha maniah a pasô awpa nata cheihchalo tuh awpa hropa hnei mapi. Eima chithâtih sâkha hnei lymapa nata reih kha chei lymapa heta maniah papôhkhasa lyma aw ta, keimo nata keimo a tlaichhaina chhao a lai via laih lyma aw. Cha ta, khizaw liata phopi rôhnahpa nata laipa sâkha eima châ pazao lyma aw.
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APPENDIX

1. Mara chithâtih châbu nata châbie (article) zy:

He ary liata palâsapazy he Mara chithâtih eihpa rona nata Mara chithâtih a rakhapa ta â hlao hrana châbu nata châbiezy, he rohtuhpa ta a pahno thei chhôhpazy châ ei ta, hezy leipa ta ahropa a pahno viapazy eima y khiata cha baichhi via lyma theipa châ sala a pha aw.

Mara chithâtih ropa thokha he cha ano châbu/châbie cheingei (primary source) ta hmô thei awpa châ khao vei. Chavata secondary source (primary source ta a reipachhuahpa) tawhta tlyma, tertiary source (primary source ta a reipachhuahpa secondary source ta a reipachhuah heihpa) zy tawhta tlyma lapazy ama châ. Ropa ta hmô theipa Mara chithâtihzy he kao no ta pachhaih si la. A kao khana châta châbu nata châbie zy châ ei sala, a kao nona liata recordzy nata hlâno ta hmo pasona archive-zy tawhta hmô theipazy eima soh aw. A kao khana, ropa ta hmô theipazy he kao no ta pachhaih pachhuah heih aw pi ta – Mara reih, Maw (Mizo) reih nata Lai reih zy ta ropazy nata Monyuh reih (English) ta ropazy, tahpa ta.

Mara chithâtih rona châbu nata châbie zy patlâh nawpa dâh (bibliography) deikua Harvard Reference System zipa ta hehawhta taopa a châ: rohtuhpa pho moh, rohtuhpa moh nata rona kô. châbu/châbie moh (biepipa). papuana su: papuatuhpa. He ary liata palâsapa thokha he internet liata chhaota hmô theipa châ ha ba ei ta, internet he Mara chithâtih hmô theina hnawh (source) sâkha a tloh haba hrapa a châ.

a. Mara reih, Maw (Mizo) reih nata Lai reih ta ropa châbu (monographs/books) nata châbie (articles) zy:

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2. ARTIFACTS AND DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE MARA PEOPLE PRESERVED AS THE LAKHER PIONEER MISSION ARCHIVE AT
THE BRITISH LIBRARY, LONDON (Credit: Sasa & www.maraland.net)

a. Papers of the Lakher Pioneer Mission to the Lakher (or Mara) people of the South Lushai Hills: principally papers of its founder Reginald Lorrain (1880-1944), and other missionary members of his family:

Correspondence and papers
(i) Family correspondence 1-34
(ii) Correspondence and papers of the Schove family 35-37
(iii) Correspondence and papers of Miss Ellen (‘Nellie’) Fife, UK Secretary and Treasurer of the Lakher Pioneer Mission, 1949-61 38-47
(iv) Correspondence and papers of George L Thompson, UK Secretary of the Lakher Pioneer Mission, 1970-77 48-49
(v) Correspondence and papers of Ian Bowman [formerly MSS Eur D 914] 50-53
(vi) Diaries of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall 54-101
(vii) Financial papers (United Kingdom account) 102-110
(viii) Other correspondence and papers 111-118
Printed and published material
(i) Lakher books and translations by Reginald Lorrain and Bruce Lorrain-Foxall 119-141
(ii) Books and periodicals in English 142-150
(iii) Other printed material 151-154
(iv) Maps 155-156
Photographs and other audio-visual material
(i) Negatives 157-160
(ii) Prints 161-198
(iii) Slides 199-210
(iv) Other visual material 211-216
(v) Tape recordings 217-219
Lakher artifacts 220-247
Miscellaneous 248

b. Lakher Pioneer Mission: correspondence of the Foxall and Lorrain-Foxall families
1 Letters from [Albert] Bruce Foxall to his parents Mr and Mrs Foxall of Bridgnorth, Shropshire 1929 [fragment only], 1931
2 Letters from [Albert] Bruce Foxall to his parents Mr and Mrs Foxall of Bridgnorth, Shropshire 1932
3 Letters from [Albert] Bruce Foxall to his parents Mr and Mrs Foxall of Bridgnorth, Shropshire 1933
4 Letters from [Albert] Bruce Foxall to his parents Mr and Mrs Foxall of Bridgnorth, Shropshire Jan-Apr 1934
5 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall Sep-Dec 1935
6 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall 1936
7 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall 1937
8 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall 1938
9 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall 1939
10 Letters from Bruce and [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall to Mr and Mrs Foxall 1940
11 Letters from Bruce and Tlosai Lorrain-Foxall and their daughter Violet to Mrs Foxall 1941
12 Letters from Bruce, Tlosai and Violet Lorrain-Foxall to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1942
13 Letters from Bruce, Tlosai and Violet Lorrain-Foxall to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1943
14 Letters from Bruce, Tlosai and Violet Lorrain-Foxall to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1944
15 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1945
16 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1946
17 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1947
18 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley Jan-May 1948
19 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley Sep-Dec 1949
20 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall, her daughter Caroline Hinsley and son-in-law Herbert Hinsley 1950
[No letters found for 1951]
21 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall and Mr and Mrs Hinsley 1952
22 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Mrs Foxall and Mr and Mrs Hinsley 1953
23 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1954
24 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1955
25 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1956
26 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1957
27 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1958, 1962-63
28 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1964
29 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1965
30 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to his sister and brother-in-law Minnie and Frank Walker of Bridgnorth and to other members of his family 1966
Also includes correspondence with the Commonwealth Office and others about the Mizo war and the safety of the Lorrain-Foxall family
31 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls to Minnie and Frank Walker and other members of his family 1967
32 Letters from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall, his daughter Violet and her husband Lapi Mark to Minnie and Frank Walker and others 1968
33 Letters from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall, his daughter Violet and her husband Lapi Mark to Minnie and Frank Walker and others 1969
34 Letters from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall, Violet, Lapi Mark and others to Minnie and Frank Walker 1972-77

c. Lakher Pioneer Mission: correspondence and papers of the Schove family [Ada Schove, nee Ulander, was Maud Lorrain’s sister]

35 Correspondence and papers of Hans and Ada Schove, including letters from Bruce, Tlosai and Violet Lorrain-Foxall, notes and cuttings on the history of the Lakher Pioneer Mission 1945-75
36 The Lakher Pioneer 1957-77 [incomplete]
37 Photographs of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall family and of Lakher scenes; most are duplicates of photographs found elsewhere in the collection c1920-70

d. Lakher Pioneer Mission: correspondence and papers of Miss Ellen (‘Nellie’) Fife, UK Secretary and Treasurer 1949-61:

38 Letters from Maud Lorrain and the Lorrain-Foxalls 1952-55
39 Letters from Maud Lorrain and the Lorrain-Foxalls 1956-57
40 Letters from Maud Lorrain and the Lorrain-Foxalls 1958-59
41 Letters from Maud Lorrain and the Lorrain-Foxalls 1960-61
42 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls 1962-63
43 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls 1964-66
44 Letters from the Lorrain-Foxalls and Lapi Mark 1967-70
45 Correspondence and papers concerning the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Mission 1957
46 Other correspondence of Ellen Fife: letters date mainly from 1960 and relate to fund-raising and to the death of Maud Lorrain 1944; 1952-60
47 Letters from Alfred H F Hinsley and others concerning his taking over the secretaryship of the Mission 1961-63

Lakher Pioneer Mission: correspondence and papers of George L Thompson, UK Secretary 1970-77
48 File of correspondence, cuttings and other papers including letters from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall and correspondence with the Mara Independent Evangelical Church concerning the dispute over the status of the Lakher Pioneer Mission and its missionaries 1970-77
49 The Lakher Pioneer 1944-77 [incomplete]

e. Lakher Pioneer Mission: correspondence and papers of Ian Bowman
[formerly MSS Eur D 914]

50 Letters from Bruce, Tlosai and Violet Lorrain-Foxall 1953-77
51 Other letters about the Mission, mainly from Ellen Fife 1954-78
52 Notes, drafts and articles by Bowman and others on the Mission 1955-77
53 The Lakher Pioneer 1949-77 [incomplete]

f. Lakher Pioneer Mission: diaries

54 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Jan 1928-Feb 1929
55 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Feb-Jul 1929
56 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Jul-Nov 1929
57 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Nov 1929-Mar 1930
58 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Apr-Jul 1930
59 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Jul-Nov 1930
60 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Nov 1930-Mar 1931
61 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Mar-Aug 1931
62 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Aug-Dec 1931
63 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Dec 1931-Apr 1932
64 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Apr-Jul 1932
65 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Jul-Oct 1932
66 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Oct-Dec 1932
67 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Dec 1932-Mar 1933
68 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Mar-May 1933
69 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall May-Aug 1933
70 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Aug-Dec 1933
71 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Dec 1933-Mar 1934
72 Diary of [Albert] Bruce Foxall Mar-Aug 1934
73 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Aug-Dec 1934
74 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jan-Oct 1935
75 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Oct 1935-Jul 1936
76 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jul-Sep 1936
77 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Sep 1936-Jan 1937
78 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jan-Mar 1937
79 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Mar-May 1937
80 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jun-Sep 1937
81 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Sep-Dec 1937
82 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Dec 1937-Mar 1938
83 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Mar 1938-Jan 1939
84 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall May 1939-Mar 1941
85 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Mar-Jun 1941
86 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jun-Aug 1941
87 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Aug-Sep 1941
88 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Sep-Oct 1941
89 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Oct-Nov 1941
90 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jan-Mar 1942
91 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jun-Jul 1942
92 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jul-Sep 1942
93 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jan-Feb 1946
94 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Feb-Apr 1946
95 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Apr-Jun 1946
96 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jun-Jul 1946
97 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Jul-Aug 1946
98 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Aug-Oct 1946
99 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Oct-Nov 1946
100 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Nov-Dec 1946
101 Diary of Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Dec 1950-Jan 1951

g. Lakher Pioneer Mission: financial papers (United Kingdom account):

102 Account book 1945-57
103 Account book 1951-56
104 Account book 1957-61
105 Cash accounts 1949-61
106 Cash accounts 1962-68
107 Cash accounts 1970-71; 1973
108 Receipts, counterfoils and balance roughs 1959-60
109 Address book of supporters of the Mission and subscribers to the Lakher Pioneer 1962-70
110 Index cards to supporters 1962-77

h. Lakher Pioneer Mission: other correspondence and papers

111 Notes by Bruce Foxall on the life of Christ 1926
112 Typed extracts from Bruce Foxall’s letters and diaries and other notes on his life in Lorrainville Originals dated 1930
113 Examination papers in Lakher prepared by Reginald Lorrain for Bruce Foxall and Irene Hadley 1930-31
114 Copies of tributes to Reginald and Maud Lorrain and copies of his Coronation Medal (awarded 1937) and her Kaisar-i-Hind Medal (awarded 1946) 1937-56
115 Papers concerning the family history of Thlahchyu and his claim to the country of Siatah 1944
116 Copies of the Lakher Pioneer sent to the BBC for a proposed This Is Your Life programme on Tlosai Lorrain Foxall and returned because the programme would be too expensive and complicated [1934-61] 1962
117 Notes, drafts and articles on the history of the Mission c1950-70
118 Other miscellaneous correspondence c1960-70

i. Lakher Pioneer Mission: Lakher books and translations by Reginald Lorrain and Bruce Lorrain-Foxall

119 Zawna: the Book of Jonah London 1915
120, 121 Haoli Baibl  Sama Chabu Cha: the Psalms [2 copies] Lorrainville 1943
122 Esthy Chabu Cha: the Book of Esther London 1928
123 Hrosopa Bi Zy: minor prophets Lorrainville nd
124, 125 Baibul Pathaipa Bu 1: Old Testament, Genesis – II chronicles [2 copies] Calcutta 1955
126, 127 Baibul Pathaipa Bu 2: Old Testament, Ezrah-Isaiah [2 copies] Calcutta 1955
128, 129 Baibul Pathaipa Bu 3: Old Testament, Jeremiah-Malachi [2 copies] Calcutta 1956
130, 131 Bihrai Thipa: New Testament [2 copies] Calcutta 1928
132 Bihrai Thipa: 2nd edition Calcutta 1939
133 Knazopa Chabu Pathaipa: revised version of the Bible Bangalore 1972
134, 135 Bi a Chhypa Bu: Bible stories retold in question and answer form by Reginald Lorrain (illustrated) [2 copies] London 1913
136 Baibl bi: Bible stories translated by Reginald Lorrain London 1937
137 Lakher hymn books, some including translations of the Ten Commandments, the Apostles’ creed and various prayers 1910-48
138 Lakher children’s primers and lesson books by Reginald Lorrain London 1933
139 Tlyzaw Khi a Tlypa: The Pilgrim’s Progress, translated by Reginald Lorrain London 1937
140 Alei a palitupa Zawha ama bipa Thatipha: ‘John Ploughman’s Gospel’ by C H Spurgeon, translated by Bruce Lorrain-Foxall Lorrainville 1943
141 Kri’zyp’e’naw Chiamai Tona: The Christian Bugle Call. Bi-monthly magazine in Lakher printed on the Mission press, Lorrainville 1936-52

j. Lakher Pioneer Mission: books and periodicals in English

142, 143 Five years in unknown jungles. Reginald A Lorrain [2 copies] London 1912
144 The Lakhers. N E Parry London 1932
145-147 Bound volumes of The Lakher Pioneer, Notes from Lakherland and News from Lakherland [vol I also contains other early printed material about the Mission] 1905-Aug 1970
148 The Lakher Pioneer [several duplicates] Dec 1970-Jul 1978
149 Duplicate copies of The Lakher Pioneer [1 box]
150 Missionary Review of All Nations and All Nations Bible College Supplement 1926-28

k. Lakher Pioneer Mission: other printed material

151 Pamphlets and leaflets about the Mission 1920-73
152 Cuttings and magazine articles c1920-70
153 Parish magazines, apparently sent as printers’ samples nd
154 Ephemera and other printed material mostly nd

l. Lakher Pioneer Mission: maps

155 Railway, canal and road maps of India. 1″/32 miles 1916
[Transferred to Maps Section]
156 Maps of S Asia showing location of the Mission c1960-70

m. Lakher Pioneer Mission: photographic negatives

157 Photographs of ranch life in America late C19
[Glass negatives only]
158 Wedding photographs of Reginald and Maud Lorrain, his brother J Herbert and Mabel Lorrain, and his sister Ethel (married name unknown] early C20
[Glass negatives only]
159 The early days of the Lakher Pioneer Mission c1907-20
[Glass negatives only]
160 The Lorrain-Foxall family with Lakher families and groups [1960s]
[Original negatives with modern reader-printer copies for reference only]

n. Lakher Pioneer Mission: photographic prints

161 Members of the Lorrain family: Mr and Mrs James Lorrain, their children Reginald, Herbert, Edwin and Ethel, Reginald’s wife Maud their daughter [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai and their adopted Lakher son John David (1922-1923) and [Albert] Bruce Foxall [later Lorrain-Foxall] c1890-1930
162 The Lorrain family including Reginald and Maud Lorrain’s adopted Lakher son Peter Richard, their daughter [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai, her husband [Albert] Bruce Foxall (later Lorrain-Foxall) and their daughter Violet c1930-40
163 The Lorrain family including Reginald and Maud Lorrain’s adopted Lakher son Peter Richard, their daughter [Louise Marguerite] Tlosai, her husband [Albert] Bruce Foxall (later Lorrain-Foxall) and their daughter Violet including photographs of Peter Lorrain and Lapi Sapai’s Wedding c1940-50
164 Photographs of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families c1950-60; a few from 1960s
165 Photographs of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families including photographs of Peter Lorrain’s children and of Violet Lorrain-Foxall, her husband Lapi Mark and their children c1970-77
166 Lorrainville and Serkawr: the Mission bungalow, garden, compound and farm with members of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families and Lakhers c1915-75
167 Maudville and the Kaladan river 1918-c1960
168 The Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families and colleagues on tour c1918-60
169 The medical work of the Mission 1918-77
170 The Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families with colleagues, friends and other missionaries 1923-c1960
171 The Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families and colleagues with Lakher individuals and groups c1925-75
172 Lakher, Lushai and Matu individuals, families and groups including photographs of several wedding groups and of the Young People’s Christian Fellowship Group in 1959 c1925-60
173 Gladys Ramsay with the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families and others
[Gladys Ramsay worked for the Lakher Pioneer Mission 1921-28] 1925; early 1940s
174 The Mission’s Communion set 1928
175 The Lorrain family with Irene Hadley and Bruce Foxall c1928-34
[Irene Hadley, later Mrs Bell, worked for the Mission 1928-34]
176 The Lorrain family and colleagues with Gladys E Gorst at the Kaladan river [1928/9]
[Gladys Gorst worked for the Mission 1928-29]
177 Pupils at the Mission schools in Lorrainville c1930-60
178 The Lorrain family and colleagues with E S Jelley and his children 1932
[E S Jelley, an American Missionary married to an Indian woman, joined the mission in Jul 1932 and left in Nov 1932]
179 The Lorrain family with Irene Hadley at the Gateway to India, Bombay Apr 1934
180 On furlough: photographs of London and Liverpool docks 1934-35
181 Louise Marguerite Tlosai Lorrain and Albert Bruce Foxall’s wedding Sep 1934
182 Children’s parties at Lorrainville c1935-50
183 Zyhno village [? Zawngling, Lushai Hills] 1936
184 The new church at Zycha [Zocha, Arakan Hills, Burma] 1939
185 Alice Denning, UK Secretary of the Lakher Pioneer Mission ? 1930s
186 Christmas at Lungleh in the Lushai Hills with the Lungleh Sub-Divisional Officer, L L Peters, his wife Mary, Florence Raper, Mr Raper and others Dec 1940
187 Photographs of the Mission and its activities mounted on card for exhibition at fund-raising events and lectures, including photographs of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families and of Lakhers, Serkawr village, a village church, hunting, the Kaladan river, roads, bridges and roadside tea shop, a man splitting bamboos for building, the celebrations of the Mission’s 50th anniversary and of the completion of the Lakher Old Testament, and Reginald and Maud Lorrain’s grave c1940-65
188 Reginald Lorrain’s wooden grave marker 1940s
189 The Lorrain-Foxall family’s visit to Calcutta and their reception back at Serkawr 1953
190 Jawaharlal Nehru’s visit to Aijal, Lushai Hills, and the opening of the Aijal-Lungleh road Apr 1953
191 The Mission’s 50th anniversary celebrations 1957
192 The Lorrain-Foxall family in Bridgnorth, Shropshire with George Thompson and the Rev Samuel Reading of Bridgnorth Feb 1971
193 Bruce Lorrain-Foxall, some of the Mission’s pastors and translators with the revised version of the Lakher Bible 1973
194 The Mission’s jeep reaches the Kaladan river on the new jeep road from Lungleh 1973
195 Celebrating the arrival of the Mission jeep when the road from Lungleh reached Lorrainville Apr 1976
196 Weaving rice baskets 1976
197 Lakher memorial stone nd
198 Miscellaneous and unidentified photographs nd
[See also no 37 above for family and other photographs kept by the Schove family]

o. Lakher Pioneer Mission: slides

199 Box containing lantern slide equipment and tinted glass slides illustrating the history and activities of the Mission, including slides of the journey to Lorrainville, Lakhers and other inhabitants of the South Lushai Hills, Serkawr and Lorrainville, Lakher churches and other buildings 1930s
200 Typescript of a lecture to accompany the lantern slides 1948/49
201 Numbered series of slides including slides of the Lorrain and Lorrain-Foxall families; Lakher individuals and groups including some from the Chin hills in Burma; Mission pastors and church members; scenes from daily life, including fetching water and weaving; Lorrainville, the Mission compound and hospital; Serkawr, its school and church; the Kaladan river and surrounding mountains; the construction and clearing of roads; weddings and funerals; Lakher flower dancers; famine relief operations. c1956-61
Captioned
202 Incomplete series of numbered slides
Nos 1, 3-21, in slide carriage 1: duplicates of same slides from no 199 above 1930s
Nos 22-70, in slide carriage 1 and 2: the Lorrain-Foxall family and Bruce Lorrain-Foxall’s carrying-chair; Lakher individuals and groups including Mission pastors, wedding groups and festivities, huntsmen, traditional costumes; the mission house, compound and the surrounding hills, Serkawr village and the Kaladan river; Lakher houses; weaving cloth; weaving bamboo panels for houses. c1967-72
Uncaptioned.
Un-numbered slides with maps and statistics concerning the Mission nd
202(a) Notes on a few of the slides in series 2 nd
203 The Lorrain-Foxall families, including Peter’s wife Sapai and their children, with Maras 1968-72
204 The Lorrain-Foxall family including Peter’s wife Sapai and their children 1972
205 The Lorrain-Foxall family including Sapai and her children, Violet’s husband Mark and his family 1973
206 The Lorrain-Foxall family including Sapai and her children, Violet’s husband Mark and his family 1974-75
207 Captioned slides including Pawthli’s funeral; a plane dropping famine supplies; the medical work of the Mission; Christmas festivities; Bruce Lorrain-Foxall, the pastors and translators with the new Revised Lakher Bible; the compound Mothers’ Meeting and Young People’s Meeting; Capt Vardowm Singh; the Mission jeep at the Kaladan river; Mara High School 1970-75
208 The day the Mission jeep arrived at Lorrainville on the new jeep road from Lungleh Apr 1976
209 Box of slides, containing mainly photographs of the Lorrain-Foxall family, also including slides of the Compound people’s meeting and youth groups, the Mission house, Compound and surrounding area and its inhabitants, Lakher pastors, preparations for a feast, Lakher women weaving, a funeral Nov 1976
210 Box of slides of the Lorrain-Foxall family, the Mission compound and surrounding area, the Kaladan river, the Mission jeep, Lakher groups 1977

p. Lakher Pioneer Mission: miscellaneous visual material

211 Copper plates for illustration in Five years in unknown jungles and other publications of the Lakher Pioneer Mission with covering letter and notes from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall 1912-c1940
[2 boxes]
212-14 Cine films marked ‘Film of our Wedding etc 1934, 1960′ [Transferred to Centre of South Asian Studies, Cambridge] c1934-60
[3 reels]
215 Sketch of the Mission bungalow and garden Aug 1937
216 Chinese scroll with print of bird and flowers nd

q. Lakher Pioneer Mission: tape recordings

217 Commentary on set of slides 1962
[no 201 above]
On reverse: Church service
218 ? Prayer or other meeting: in poor condition nd
219 Unidentified nd

r. Lakher Pioneer Mission: Lakher artefacts (transferred to Museum of Mankind)
[These were brought home by staff of the Mission and apparently used as illustrations or exhibits at lectures and fund-raising events]
220 Men’s decorated topknot pins
221 Women’s bamboo and brass hairpins, including a massive brass ceremonial hairpin
222 Decorated combs
223 Bamboo necklaces
224 Metal bracelets and earrings
225 Women’s metal belts
226 Woven grass belts worn by old women
227 Cotton pods and raw silk
228 Examples of raw, carded and spun cotton
229 Weaving equipment: bobbins and quilts
230 Textiles: woman’s blouse, skirts and apron, man’s ceremonial loincloths, shawls, woven bags
231 Carrying straps woven from bamboo
232 Model of woven bamboo basket for carrying on back
233 Small bamboo baskets, one containing beans and seeds
234 Bamboo and wooden spoons
235 Bamboo pipes, pipe cleaners and decorated tobacco holder
236 Man’s knife in bamboo sheath
237 Machete with bamboo handle and decorated blade
238 Bamboo and grass broom
239 Japanned bamboo fountain pen
240 Sacrificial arrows
241 Powder-flask made from a gayal’s horn
242 Model beer pot
243 Child’s rattle made from a bean pod
244 Cow or goat bell
245 Bear claws and wild boar tusks
246 Skin of a gibbon
247 Part of a letter from Bruce Lorrain-Foxall explaining some of the artefacts in the collection and recounting how he was called to join the Lakher Pioneer Mission 1970s

s. Lakher Pioneer Mission: miscellaneous

248 Lakher Pioneer Mission collecting box c1920

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Laiu Fachhai, BSc, BD, MTh, DTh he ECM Pastor pakha châ ta, atahmano he ECM tuapata Serving In Mission – North East India Director raihriapa ta Shillong liata a chhôhkha chhaota ama pahrâ. He SIM Director rai a hriapa dei châ leipa ta, John Roberts Theological Seminary, Shillong, liata chhao Visiting Professor châpa ta BD a chuhaipazy Biehrai Parohpa nata Hebrai reih a pachu ei.

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One Comment

  1. elipaw says:

    Ei tae Vano paw,

    Mara chabuzy nata chapawzy na pahmaopa he a ronah kaw. Nama hawhpa Marah thyutlia eima y thai khao nata pangiasa vana. Eima cha ly kaw.

    Ei tae y,
    Keima moh hmia liata Chozah na baipa dei he mo hropazy ei naw pahno khiah ei ta cha ei na pahneisaoh aw ei. Keima cha Chozahpa cha va na. Eima chi nata rah chata vaw tiama via lyma ma y. Tahma keima cha “Theology Waves” tahpa Myanmar reih ta ei roh patlo haw ba hra. Print mah vana. Na chabu pha kawpa Dissertation lia na khata keima dyutlai leipa articles moh zy ei vaw hmopa vata a thata ei cha ly kaw hra. Abeipa ta byhna cha pi via lyma mawh sy! Na nawtae, elipaw (MCC).

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