Mara Abeina

Mara Abeina/Chieftainship 

                                                                                                                                   Dr. K. Robin

                                                                  

Introduction:

 Abeina sôhlôpa (chieftainship) thâtih âchupa nata pachâpa he atahmâhlâ châchuna liata biepi chaipa (academic discourse) achâ hra pata â lâ. Âpahthupi âchupa chyhsa nata châthai patluapa zy pachâ dâh mohpa ta, hmo âkhiakhi kawpa nata bie-eina atao kawpa biepipa achâ thlyu aw.

Châ ta rohpa/written record asianô kawpa a y leipa vâta, Mara na zy he khatai su tawta ma, tahmâ ta eima pahrâna su he eima vaw ngai tapa nata, khati daihti tawta ma Abei hneipa nata Abeina ry liata a za y pathaopa ma eima châ tapa he â-ihcha kaw pata rei theipa châ vei.

Châhrasala, Mara na pie he, Tibeto-Burman chi nata pho hry liata pahlaopa/classified pa eima châpa vata, Tibeto-Burman na âpaih/migrate nadâh zy pachâ nata âlaichadai pata, China tawta za puapa, Yangtze Kiang nata Hwangho chavah chho lâ chhâh liata apahrâpa eima châ pata â lâ ta, he su tawta chho-notla bai lâchhâ sie lyma pata Irrawaddy nata Chindwin chavah zi lyma pata tlâh râh Chin Hills â zâ ngia heipa eima châ thlyu aw.[1]

Cha leipa chhaota, Pakahta âchho pachhuapa (Oral Tradition) zy âlaichadai pata, Mara pa zy he, Chin Hills liata ama pahrâ no taw nata atliata kô 1956[2] liata Abeina pachhâsana tai khata, Abei hneipa ta khi ama vaw sa tapa cha pahno thei awpa achâ. Mara Abei chi nata pho zy cha, Chozah, Bôhia, Chhâchhai, Hlychho, Khuhly, Thlyuthâ, Zawthâ, Nôhro etc zy ama châ.[3]

Statement of the Problem:

Marapa Abeina (Chieftainship) âvaw thaona dâh he bie-eina papuasa thei kawpa hmo achâ pata â lâ. Anodeikuala, Marapa zy dei châ leipa ta, ‘tribal’ society hrahro liana heta Abeina â vaw thao tuana dâh he âlyu kaw sai pata pahnopa achâ.[4]

Hlano daihti liata Marapa zy khihsana dâh nata âmohôna dâh (Social and political set up) he nôpaw bie nata hla (tradition) nata phôryhpa (customary law) zy chhaota khâchâ âtaozaopa achâ. Râh ryureina nata chhôkha, sanawh-rinô âpadua na dâh zy chhao he khâchâ âtaozao pa achâ hleikhô ta, cha zy chô liata biehnei na sâ chaipa a chaba awpata Abeina sôhlôpa (Chieftainship) he a ypa achâ.[5] Nôpaw biesoh ‘sei he akô ta pyuh leipa ta, azôh ta âzaw hra vei’ ama tapa pachâ pata, Abei chi nata pho chhao he tao chhypa (constructed) châ ta, khihsaw zy ta ama hry liatapa ama paduapa achâ.

Athaona liata cha, chhôkha nata sanawh-rinô chyta zy ta khi zy padua ei ta, kô nata daihti zy vaw sie ta malu zy vaw pô via lyma eita, khihsa tôhtuna nata âmohôna kyh zy a vaw ru via nata cha, ama hry liata hyutupa paduah byuhna vaw y pathao ta, chatanachata, ama hry liata pawhrâ chaipa tlyma, râhsa nata chariah liata riapha chaipa ta ama raopa tlyma, khihsaw zyta ama ngâh pa chyhsa cha hyutuhpa/chhithatuhpa châta rao eih-pa a vaw châ.[6]

Hyutuhpa a châpa hawta khihsaw zy mohôna kyh liata maophaona lai kawpa a chô liata pahniehpa a châpa vata, ano chhao ta khihsaw mo tawta chhie nata sahawsabai âhnaw hleikhô ta, abyuhna lia mai ta ama tha nata zâh chhao a hmâ tyh hrapa achâ. Daihti a vaw sie via nata deikua cha, hyutuhpa/chhithatuhpa duasu cha Abei châta pa-ihpa (permanent & hereditary) vaw châ ha ta, ama chhôkha nata pathlapa zy taita Abei chi nata pho châta âpy pa a vaw châ pata â lâ.[7] Chatahrasala Abei biehneina deikua he, phôryhpa (customary law) chhô liata khâchâ achahâpa achâ.[8]

Marapa zy hry liata châphana nata châna â sâh zie (rank) âchahâna cha Abei nata a chhôkha zy ama châ hleikhô ta, pikheina tovyuh (hereditary rights) hawta thlai pachâpa vaw châ ta.[9] Chyhsa zawrâpa châta deikua, duasu âsâ viapa liata y awpa heta hneirôna tlyma, thaina eihrâ viapa tlyma, chariah âdyuh daihti liata riaphapa zy ama châ pa abyuh. Cha hleikhô ta chyhsa zawrâpa zy tawta Abei chhôkha zy cha pahruapa nata pachônôsa pa ama châ hra.[10] Chyhsa zawrâpa tawta Abei kaw châ pa he hmo y patluapa achâ vei khiatala a y zawrâ leipa achâ pata â lâ.[11] Abei heta a unawpa tlyma, a nôbei saw tlyma, a nôtho saw chhao rai khih eihpa padua pata apa beisa thei hra.

Anaosia pa nata apatlâna zie ta pachâ pata Abeina cha khih ryureina mopakha liata sypahmaohna (centralized polity) tapa ta eima reih thei aw. Cha leipa chhao ta mopakha ta malu hluhpi sypakhy ta yzie hnei via pata khihsana he achâ.[12] He he, niebaw âtivyna kyh liata hmo byuh kawpa achâ hra. Niebaw âtivyna kyh liata Mopakha tlyma chhôkha deita tlyma hlâta zawpi hluh viapa ypakhypa ta alaikhôpata hneina (surplus production) tlôkhei thei ta, cha hawpa pachâ pata, zawpi hluh viapa sypahmaoh thei awpa hyutuhpa/Abei hnei byuna pa cha a lai kawpa vâta, ama hry liata pa cha Abei ta raopa a vaw châ.

Abei cha, a khihsaw nata achi hei zy hry liata duasu phapa nata bie hneina â sâh chaipa achaba tuhpa châ ta. Ano cha a chyhsa zy âpôkhana pamosana nata biehrai tuhpa achâ tho ta, zawpi zy âpahniena peimawh chaipa achâ. Chariah hmiakô liata hmia âsa tuhpa, biebua paryhtuhpa, dâh taotuhpa nata mohôhtuhpa; a chyhsa nata khihsaw vyuh pata chi hro pho hropa hmiakô liata  khâpano rai ta âduah tyhpa achâ.[13]

Abei maophaohna he âsâ kaw ta, khihsaw mo chhao ta a bie cha kaoh toti liata ama zyh typa achâ. A bie zyh leituhpa cha dâh paraopa nata âdyuh tuhpa ta pachâpa châ ta, ama o nata lyu zy taita pahleipahlô pata khih tawta papua theipa ama châ.[14]

Abeina cha â-ihcha kawpa nata hmo sôhlôpa (institution) thlai vaw châ ta. Abei thi daihti liata asu âthla awpa heta, saliah salôhpa zy hlâ ta saw uthei chaipa he raopa achâ tyh. Anodeikuala kheihawpa vata arypaoleina liata cha, saw seihnai chaipa chhao Abei duasu liata âduah theipa achâ hra pata âlâ. Tlaikao na chhao he âthao tuano cha seihnai chaipa he pabeisa tyhpa châ thlyu aw ta, châhrasala daihti a vaw sie via nata, uthei chaipa lâ ta thla pa hawta reipa achâ.[15] Mara Abei chi nata pho hry liata Bohia Abeina dâh deikua he ânano patlua ta reihpa châ ta, Parihpi/Khazohpa chhôhchhipa (Divine origin) hawta pachâpa ama châ.[16]

Mara Abeina liana heta chanô âbei pa he reipa a y leipa ta pahnopa achâ hra.[17] Tlaikao na deikua he British na ama vaw laina daihti lia khata riapha pa nata chhyu kawpa Abeinô Ropuiliani ama hneipa hawta ama reih.[18] Ano he Rangamati (Chittagong Hill Tracts) liata patâhpa châ ta, a thina taihta British sawkhâ biethâh sa leipa nata adyuh tuhpa achâ.[19]

Administration:

Ti nata râh mohô na kyh liata Abei baokhâ awpata chhosietuhpa Abeimachâ zy y eita. Dâh paraopa nata moleipa zy pachiana nata pathlâpazi na kyh liata chhao Abei ta asaohia chaipa ama Châ. Dâh paraona kyh ta thailei achâ pa zy cha abyuh nadâh hawta hriepa tlyma pacheisapa tlyma châ eita, thina taih hriena he Abeita apie thei pa achâ.

Abeimachâ zy he nohâ-y kawpa châ eita, Abei nata khihsaw mo chhao ta amâ pahnieh chaina ama châ hra. Ama hluhna zie he khih alai nata chyh rei liata âpahnieh pa achâ thlyu aw. Cha hleikhô ta tlâ-awhpa zy, syudaihpa zy, theithaipa zy chhao y eita, amo he a y patluapa nata thaina-eihpa ahneipa chyhsa châ eita, sahawsabai tawta pa-eipa ama cha.[20]

Khihtlâh ryureina raih he, Abei nata a machâ zyh maophaona châ ta, phôryhpa (customary law) liata âpahnieh lyma pata ryureina he siekheipa achâ. Â-eichhiana tlyma âta-thaileina tlyma khei hawpa biebua rai y sala, âtlâpi pata âpahnothai veichâh pata pathlâpazi âchhuah tuapa achâ tyh. Cha hawta pathlâpazi theipa achâ vei khiatala, Abei hnota tlôkhei theipa châta, a machâ zy chhaota biebua he paryh tyhpa achâ. Chahaw chhaota paryh thei leipa biebua a y khiatala, pasiana riethei chhipa, ti-ei chapao tlyma, tiry ngiah tlyma, cha leipa chhaota chhie sakhâna chakei hâh sie, Chhaolei ti do tapa zy hmâ pata biebua he pasia tyhpa achâ hra.[21]

Abei cha, hyutuh chaipa achâpa haw tlaita, a ti nata râh niebawh âtivyhna (economic organization) kyh liata maophaona chaba ta. Aleilô, ti nata râh chhao ano biehneina ry liata a ypa châ ta,[22] lyu tla nawpa râh raiparuana kyh liata chhao biehnei tuhpa achâ.[23] A khihsaw chyhsa zy tawta chhie nata sahawsabai zy chhao adao pa dei châlei pata, ama tha nata zâh chhao asaipa ta abyuh na lia maihta a hmâ tyhpa achâ.[24] Anodeikua, chakâhna vata niebaw rairuna daihti liata Abei heta khihsaw chyhsa zy nôpona cha apathlâpazie tyhpa achâ. Abei riakhie tuhpa nata dyhchhie tuhpa cha a chyhsa zy ta khih hrolâ amâ paihsai tyh hra.

South Africa liata Tswana chi bieso “Abei cha khihsaw zy ngiachhiena zaw âzi tuhpa deita achâ…” (a chief is chief by the grace of his tribe…)[25] tapa he, Mara Abeina nata chhao âzao kawpa bie achâ. Abei biehneina he âsâh kawpa achâ tarawpa ta, dâh nata phôryhpa (customary law) khô lâ ta ano khota ryurei zawrâ vei. Nôchhie kawpa nata laipatha kaw pata ryu arei khiatala, khihsaw zy ta ârâsai pata khih hrola amâ paih sai tyhpa achâ.[26] He heta, Abei nata a machâ zy khâchâ chahry ta, dâh nata phôryhpa taihna chhô lia leipa ta cha khôtho lâ ama chaka zawrâ leipa achâ (served as system of check and balance). Chavâ ta, Abeina sôhlôpa (Chieftainship) he khih avaona dâh nata phôryhpa chhohpasiana nata hmâhna liata khâchâ âchahâpa achâ.

Khihsaw mo tha nata zâh a hmâ tyhpa nata sahawsabai zy chhao adao tyh vâna heta, Abei chhaota a chyhsa zy châta phahnai angia kaw pata rai a hria awpa byuh ta, sa nata chariah liata chhao hmia âsa lyma pata, a sahlao zy pabohsa awpa he a maophaona hawta khâchâ â pachâ hra. He he, Jean Jacques Rousseau Social Contract Theory[27] nata chhao alyu kawpa achâ. Chatanachata, Abei nata khihsaw mo zy cha â ngâhchhâ veichâ pata, ama châta hmopha taobyuhna kyh liata rai hria veichâ (corresponding obligation) lyma pata chhâ hluhpi ama vaw siekhei tyhpa achâ.

Concluding remarks:

Kô zareina 19 chhâna lâchhâ ta tlaikao râh ângia pata Mongyuh na ama vaw lai na khata, âthlana thlihpi (wind of change) ru ngaitapa nata thatlôpa â vaw ngiakhei eita, Marapa râh chhao za chabai pathao ta. Marapa zy, Bei biehneina chhô liata yzie hneipa nata tlyuh kaw pata khih ama sa ngâh nota, buakha chhôhta ama duahsu panano pata a y aw tapa he ama pachâhpady nata pangiasa âchhi vei.

Marapa râh liata misawnari zy amâ vaw ngiana daihti liata zyhna hropa (Krizyhna) ama vaw tlôkheipa nata hmo thiepa hluhpi amâ vaw ngiakheipa zy ta Marapa hroh thata vaw pahnie ta. Buakhâ hlâta châ reih nata roh zy vaw thai eita, khôtho lata hmo, chyhsia zy, sâbaw, thlalâ, beiphia, hmobao chi nanonopa, meirâh, thopi, chini, plastic chhaichhi nata hmo hropa hluhpi khichhôh lia âvaw ngia ta, chahleikhôta phusâ hmôna nata hmâna kyh vaw pahno pathao eita, he zy heta Marapa zy hro liata hniehnô ahnei lai kawpa achâ.[28]

Misawnari zyta lâpi ama tao chiepa âchhi pata, British sawkhâ cha thlai ta Mara râh ângia pata Abei zy nata âdaohna hnei pathao eita, chatanachata, British sawkhâ molaipa zy heta ama khokheipa chyhsa zy cha râh pie eita, Abei ta ama taopa zy chhao a y pata reihpa achâ. He daihti rakha tawna heta, kha hlâta Abei zy nata khihsaw mo likah âtaozaona âthupa nata â-ihcha kaw tyhpa cha, thlai â vaw huary ta, mopakha khotalaina papeimawhsana (individualism) vaw y pathao pata, Abei biehneina aina palôhru cha thlai avaw pi pathaopa achâ.

Cha hawpa ta Marapa zy hry liata âthlana a y hai nota, kô zareina 20 chhâna lâchhâ liata khizaw râh âvaotupa zy ta, amâ vaopa râh zy puasai pata (de-colonization process) ama chô liata biehneina a pie pakhua pathao nata cha, râh hluhpi zyta ama buakhei tuachaipa cha su nata râh hrozie paryhna (adjustment) he a vaw châ. Apachai pata India râh maw chho lâ liata tlâh râh chyhsa zy nata Marapa zy chhao ta, khihsa tôtuh paryhnapa he ama buakhei chaipa a vaw châ ha hra.

Kô 1947 pata British sawkhâ ta India râh a puasai na khata, Mara râh chhao India râh Assam sawkhâ biehneina ry liata vaw y ta, thlai ta Abei biehneina cha pachhâsapa a vaw châ.[29] Anodeikuala, Independent achâ tawta India Sawkhâ ta a râh chhô su hropa liata Abei zy duasu a paryhna dâh nata, Maw râh chhô liata Abei zy duasu a paryhna dâh mohpa he ta amâ pathlie kaw pata pahnopa achâ.

Apachai pata, Mara Abei zy biehneina pachhâsa pata a vaw y daihti liata, reih tlâh nata ngiatlâh kawpa hmo India sawkha ta a taopa he y vei. Ama maophaonapa, kô-zaw ta ama chaba tyhpa pachâ pata, bieryuhipa zy chhao pahneisa khao leipa ta, khâpa hraolei pata pachâsapa ama cha haw. Atahmâ chhâ liata eima sawkhâ siena nata âmohôna dâh zy, Marapa zawpi khihsana dâh tlâhpipa zy mohpa heta, eikha-rakhuh ta âthlana thlihpi vaw pathlipa he eima chahâ pasi ha pata â lâ.

Abei biehneina he kao hluhpi liata a phapaki leina nata khihsaw zy khoh âkhi vei hrasala, adaihti liata amaophaonapa he pabie thei tuh awpa hmo hropa a y pata â lâ vei. Âki leina nata mâh-muana chôta chhâ hluhpi sie pakhô pata, ryureina yzie hnei kawpa nata phôryhpa chhô liata âchahâna chô ta, khihtlâh liata âthlâzina tlôkhei tuhpa a châna zy he eima my lei awpa achâ.

Hlâno daihti liata Abei ryureina nata khihtlâh mohôna dâh zy, chhôkha âmohôna dâh zy, phôryhpa pasôna zy, nôpaw biethâh sana zy, utei via thlahsana zy moh pata, atahmâ daihti liata eima nôchâ hrohzie nata khihsana dâh zy nata thliepakho pata, kheihawpa he ma pha via tapa he bie-eina lai kawpa papua theipa hmo achâ.

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[1] G.M.Enriquez, A Burmese Arcady,London, p.7. (Material downloaded from the Internet).

[2] Lalsangliani, Grassroots Democracy; The working of village council system in Mizoram in J.K.Patnaik, Mizoram; Dimensions and Perspectives, Society, Economy and Polity, New Delhi, 2008, p.287. See also The Assam Lushai Hill District Act of 1954: The Assam Act XXI of 1954. Sangkima, Origin of Chieftainship in early Mizo society in Historical Journal of Mizoram Volume IX, p. 1.

[3] S.Hrachu, Mara Lal Ropui Tevo Bohia Chanchin, Unpublished document, p.1, and K.Robin, Colonialism and the History of tribes in Mizoram: A case study of the Lakhers, Unpublisheed Ph.D  thesis, MZU, 2007.

[4] K.Robin, Colonialism and the History of tribes in Mizoram: A case study of the Lakhers, Unpublisheed Ph.D  thesis, MZU, 2007.

[5] Lewis Henry Morgan, Ancient Society, London, 1877, pp. 65-67. See also Emile Durkheim, Elementary Forms of religious Life, London, 1915 and Malinawski, Freedom and Civilization, London, 1947. I.Schapera, Government and Politics in Tribal Societies, London, 1963, pp 14-15.

[6] I. Schapera (ed.,), Bantu speaking tribe of South Africa,   London, 1953.  pp. 174-185.

[7] Jonathan Haas, The evolution of the pre-historic state, Columbia University Press, New York, See also K.Robin, Op.cit

[8] T.S. Gangte, The Kukis of Manipur, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, 1993, p. 127.

[9] K.Robin,Chieftainship and colonialism in Mizoram, in International Research Journal of Social Sciences Vol 1, Puducherry, 2008, p. 181.

[10] This view is based from oral source by interviewing H.C.Kâlai, son of Tlaikao, chief of Thiahra in the winter of 2004.

[11] I.Schapera (ed.), Western Civilization and the Natives of South Africa, Studies in culture contact,London, 1967, pp. 18-22

[12] Robert Carneiro and Timothy Earle, Chiefdoms in archaeological and ethno-historical perspective; Annual Review in Anthropology, 1987, pp.  279-308.

[13] I.Schapera (ed.), Op.cit

[14] Ibid, p. 24.

[15] John Shakespear, Lushai Kuki Clans, Part-I, Reprint, TRI, Aizawl, 1975, p.42.

[16] S.Hrachu, Op.cit,  pp.1-2.

[17] Chanô amâ bei taraw lei pata, Mara Beina lia heta Abei lapinô zy he huhâ hnei kawpa nata amâ vapa zy âchhi thei kawpa ama châ thlyu aw. He he atano Marapa zy hro liata khâchâ a ypa achâ pata alâ, chapaw cha chanô luh achâ taraw pata, chanô zy he ochhô khao liata biehnei chaipa nata ryurei tu chaipa ama châ pata alâ.

[18] Hamlet B. Ngapkynta, Ropuiliani in the context of Mizoram’s Resistance Movement in Lalneihzovi, Role of Ropuiliani in the Freedom Struggle, Aizawl, 2005, p.1.

[19] Ibid, p.22.

[20] This view is based from oral source by interviewing Machâ Hiphei on 12.02.2009 at his residence, Aizawl.

[21] Ibid

[22] Bei pachhâsapa achâ daihti liata, chârithôna (compensation) adao tuhpa zy cha Abei chhôkha sahlao zy châ eita, he heta, ti nata râh chô liata biehnei (absolute right) tuhpa ama châ zie apalâsa pa achâ.

[23] T.S. Gangte, The Kukis of Manipur, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, 1993, p.126.

[24] P.T. Hlychho, Maraland:Yesterday and Today, Shillong, 2007, p. 26.

[25] I.Schapera (ed.), Op.cit, p. 184.

[26] T.H.Lewin, A Fly on the Wheel: How I helped to Govern India, Calcutta, Firma KLM Pvt Ltd, Reprint, 1977, p. 287.

[27] Jean Jacqueus Rousseau, The Social Contract: 1762.

[28] K.Robin,Chieftainship and colonialism in Mizoram, in International Research Journal of Social Sciences Vol 1, Puducherry, 2008, p. 191.

[29] See The regulation of the Assam Acquisition of the Chief’s Right Act, 1954.

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